DEFINITION OF DIABETES and METABOLIC SYNDROME

DEFINITION OF DIABETES

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized of hyperglycemia resulting in defects from insulin secretion and insulin action.  The chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and organ failure especially of eyes, kidneys, heart, nerves and blood vessels.

  1. THE CONCEPT OF “THE METABOLIC SYNDROME”

Metabolic Syndrome also referred to as Insulin resistance syndrome to a cluster of cardio vascular disease risk factors and metabolic alteration associated with excess body fat.  IDF defines the metabolic syndrome as central obesity plus any two of the following factors:

  • Abdominal Obesity
  • Raised triglycerides
  • Reduced HDL cholesterol
  • Hypertension
  • Glucose Tolerance or Diabetes

Insulin resistant and accompanying hyperinsulinemaia is said to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome with a casual relationship to hypertension.

Measure Categorical cut points
Elevated waist circumference Population and county specific definitions
Elevated triglycerides > 150 mg/dl
Reduced HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dl (for males);  <50 mg/dl (for females)
Elevated Blood pressure >  130/85 mm/hg
Elevated Fasting glucose > 100 mg /dl

 

 

 

 

The metabolic syndrome should be treated aggressively to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes.  IDF recommendation for the primary management of the metabolic syndrome include promotion of healthy lifestyle – including moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and a change in dietary composition.