What is Diabetes?



  1. Type 1 Diabetes:


Type 1 Diabetes develops if the body is unable to produce any insulin. This type of diabetes usually develops before the age of 30 years. Type 1 Diabetes is treated with daily insulin injections, a healthy diet and regular physical activity.


  1. Type 2 Diabetes:


Type 2 Diabetes develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough or when the insulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is treated with a healthy diet and increased physical activity. In addition to this, medications and/or insulin are often required.


  1. Gestational Diabetes:


Gestational diabetes develops in 5% to 10% of all pregnancies but usually disappears when the pregnancy is over. Women who have had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk (up to 50%) of developing type 2 diabetes later.





Who all are at more risk of developing Diabetes?



Indians in general are more predisposed for developing Diabetes. In addition, other risk factors are:


  • If any of your close family member has diabetes (parent, brother or sister)


  • Overweight or obese (Body mass index more than 23)


  • Habitual physical inactivity


  • Women who delivered a baby weighing >3.5 kg or were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy


  • High blood pressure


  • Those with high blood cholesterol


  • Women with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)


  • Heart disease patients





Why does my child have type 1 diabetes?


Why does my child have type 1 diabetes?

When a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes it not only affects the child’s life but the family as a whole. The process of learning about diabetes and making adjustments continues for a long time, may be years and in this journey many times one question arises, “why does my child has type 1 diabetes” or a teenager may think, “why do I have diabetes”?


Type 1 diabetes is not caused by wrong eating habits or lifestyle nor is it a sin or punishment. The question still remains unanswered as to why some children get it. The answer to this question is not as important as is the fact that with the help of regular insulin injections, proper monitoring and incorporation of nutritious foods and physical activity into each day, one can enjoy a relatively normal, healthy life.


Every day technology for taking insulin is changing. Now we have finer thin and small needles, which are almost painless. We have smart glucose monitoring devices and somewhere research to find a cure is making progress. While we’re not there yet, in our vision of changing diabetes we always hope to find a cure for type 1 diabetes.



What are signs and symptoms of diabetes?



 Frequent urination  Increased thirst


 Sudden weight loss  Increased hunger


 Always tired  Wounds that won’t heal


 Blurring of vision  Sexual problems


 Vaginal infection  Tingling or numbness in hands or feet





Do I need to check myself for diabetes even if I do not have any symptoms?



Majority of diabetics in fact do not have any symptoms. After the age of 45 years all people should get their blood sugar checked routinely even in the absence of symptoms and risk factors. If your blood sugar is normal you should get it checked every 3 yearly.



How can I check myself for diabetes?



You need to get your blood sugar checked in fasting as well as 2 hours after taking 75gms of glucose. You should consult your doctor for all precautions & information prior to testing.



Why to control diabetes?



Poorly managed diabetes can lead to various complications like blindness, kidney failure, neuropathy, heart attack, paralysis, sexual and urologic problems. Although diabetes cannot yet be cured, it can be successfully managed. In order to stay away from complications, it is important that your blood glucose is adequately controlled. Eating a balanced diet, managing your weight and following a healthy lifestyle together with taking your prescribed treatment and regular monitoring is important.



What are regular investigations required in diabetics?



  • Every visit – blood glucose, blood pressure, foot examination.


  • 3 monthly – HbA1C (Glycated hemoglobin)- This test gives estimate for average blood sugar control over past 3 months


  • Yearly – Kidney function test (KFT), lipid profile, fundus for diabetic retinopathy, urine for mirco albumin





What are the goals to achieve for good diabetes control?



  • Pre meal blood sugar- 70–130 mg/dL


  • Post meal blood sugar- <180 mg/dL


  • HbA1C (Glycated hemoglobin)- <7.0%


  • Blood pressure- <130/80 mmHg


  • LDL cholesterol-<100 mg/dL